Below is a compilation of our publications.   If you desire to access them, you will be directed to a page to enter your contact information.

  • TOWER COMPLIANCE AND FCC OET-65 RFR GUIDELINES, October 2016
    • TOWER UPDATE AND NEW ASR SIGNAGE REQUIREMENTS:  The most significant changes that are under consideration with respect to tower marking and lighting occurred with the recent Congressional passing, and Presidential signing of, H.R. 636 – a/k/a/ the “FAA Extension, Safety and Security Act of 2016.”

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • NEW EMERGENCY ALERT TEST REPORTING SYSTEM (“ETRS”), October 2016
    • By way of background, the primary purpose of the development of the Emergency Alert System, or “EAS”, and its precursors, was to provide a mechanism by which the entire U.S. population could simultaneously be made aware of nationwide emergency situations. The system was then further developed to permit regional, state and local official entities the ability to warn of impending disastrous weather conditions or other circumstances that could have a significant impact on, or pose a threat to, individuals in those locations.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • REVITALIZATION OF THE AM RADIO SERVICE, October 2015
    • WHAT YOU CAN DO BASED ON THE FIRST REPORT AND ORDER MB Docket No. 13-249 Released October 23, 2015  (WHAT COMES NEXT – WATCH FOR THE UPCOMING REPORT ON THE FURTHER NOTICE OF PROPOSED RULE MAKING)

      Click Here for the Full Paper

  • AN UPDATE ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE LPFM SERVICE, October 2014

    • The Low Power FM (LPFM) service was initiated by the Commission in January, 2000, in Docket No. 99-25, consisting of two station classes – LPFM (100 watt) and LP10 (10 watt) facilities. Considered a “secondary broadcast service”, LPFM  stations, under the prior Rules, are required to protect all existing and proposed first and second adjacent frequency facilities in its respective allocation study as well as other existing and proposed secondary auxiliary facilities such as FM translators. Although there has been a good deal of controversy as to whether LPFM stations should also be required to protect third adjacent channel stations this debate was resolved by the enactment of the Local Community Radio Act (“LCRA”)…

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  • NEW EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM RULES, October 2014
    • On September 30, 2010 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”) adopted a new digital messaging standard known as the “Common Alerting Protocol”, referred to as “CAP”, which will transform the Emergency Alert System (“EAS”) as we have known it. The new CAP standard is part of the next generation national emergency alert and warning network known as the Integrated Public Alert Warning System, or “IPAWS.”

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • UNATTENDED OPERATION 2014, October 2014
    •  In 1995, under MM Docket 94-130, the Commission adopted new rules which permitted broadcast facilities to operate without the physical presence of an individual to ensure that the facility’s transmitter was performing as licensed. The common term coined for this type of station functioning is “unattended operation.” This was done in recognition of the advances in technology that had been made in the reliability of both transmitters as well as remote control systems. These advances notwithstanding, certain standards are still in place to ensure that the station is operating within its authorized parameters as well as complying with EAS requirements and the ability to respond quickly to any complaints of interference on out-of-tolerance operation.

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • FCC OET-65 RFR GUIDELINE AND TOWER COMPLIANCE, October 2014
    •  As many licensees whose station licenses have been recently renewed are aware, the standards and requirements with respect to addressing the aspect of the renewal process regarding potential radio frequency exposure have been somewhat modified. Despite the increased public concern of this potential hazard, the Commission has relaxed its previous requirement that all license renewal applications contain an in depth evaluation of potential radio frequency radiation, replacing this prior condition with a certification concerning compliance with the current FCC OET-65 guidelines for stations that have had no “material change” in its RF environment since the last CP grant or license renewal.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING LICENSE FULL SERVICE FM, AM AND FM TRANSLATOR STATIONS, October 2014
    • At present (and for the foreseeable future) there will not be a filing window for new full service NCE FM facilities in the reserved band. However, there are some avenues for existing facility improvements, or upgrades, which can still be explored at this time.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • WHY YOUR FM COVERAGE MAY NOT MEET EXPECTATIONS, October 2013
    • There are multiple motivations for this paper. First and foremost is the fact that the FCC is in the process authorizing hundreds of new FM translator stations and is expected to authorize hundreds, if not thousands, of LPFM new facility authorizations in 2014. This level of activity, combined with the ongoing installation of new and replacement high power FM antennas, is expected to develop an unprecedented demand for FM antenna products.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • ALDENA – UNIQUE PRODUCTS AND CAPABILITIES, October 2013
    • My first acquaintance with Aldena came in the mid-1980s when our firm was looking for a software package to use in the design of multi-element FM and TV antenna systems. Harry Anderson of EDX Engineering software fame directed us to Giuseppe Napoli at Aldena knowing the quality of their design software.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • NEW TOWER RULES: THE FCC APPROVAL PROCESS INVOLVING NEPA ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE AND ANTENNA STRUCTURE REGISTRATION, October 2012
    • Many broadcasters believe that construction of a radio tower is a matter requiring only FAA, local and possibly state approval prior to commencing construction. When it is learned that the FCC has very specific environmental assessment requirements which must be completed before the construction permit can be granted, the unplanned cost, potential complications and delay are never welcome. The purpose of this article is to explain the process so that it is not a surprise and, in fact, can be incorporated into the schedule and budget from the very beginning. The good news is that often the local approval process requires some of the same studies that are required by the FCC.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • CURRENT UPGRADE RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING LICENSED FULL SERVICE AM AND FM STATIONS, October 2012
    • At present (and for the foreseeable future) there will not be a filing window for new full service NCE FM facilities in the reserved band. However, the FCC is periodically opening filing opportunities for new NCE and commercial FM stations in the non-reserved portion of the band. That said, there are some avenues for existing facility improvements, or upgrades, which can be explored at this time.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • UNATTENDED OPERATION, October 2012
    • In 1995, under MM Docket 94-130, the Commission adopted new rules which
      permitted broadcast facilities to operate without the physical presence of an
      individual to ensure that the facility’s transmitter was performing as licensed. The
      common term coined for this type of station functioning is “unattended operation.”

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • EAS-CAP 2012: NEW EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM RULES, October 2012
    • On September 30, 2010 the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”) adopted a new digital messaging standard known as the “Common Alerting Protocol”, referred to as “CAP”, which will transform the Emergency Alert System (“EAS”) as we have known it. The new CAP standard is part of the next generation national emergency alert and warning network known as the Integrated Public Alert Warning System, or “IPAWS.”

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • UPDATE ON THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE LPFM SERVICE, October 2012
    • The Low Power FM (LPFM) service was initiated by the Commission in January, 2000, in Docket No. 99-25, consisting of two station classes – LPFM (100 watt) and LP10 (10 watt) facilities. Considered a “secondary broadcast service”, LPFM stations, under the current Rules, are required to protect all existing and proposed first and second adjacent and intermediary frequency facilities in its respective allocation study as well as other existing and proposed secondary auxiliary facilities such as FM translators.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • FCC OET-65 RFR GUIDELINE COMPLIANCE AND LICENSE RENEWALS, October 2011

    • As many licensees whose station licenses are currently up for renewal already know, the standards and requirements with respect to addressing the aspect of the renewal process regarding potential radio frequency exposure have been somewhat modified. Despite the increased public concern of this potential hazard, the Commission has relaxed its previous requirement that all license renewal applications and applications for new facility construction contain an in depth evaluation of potential radio frequency radiation, replacing this prior condition with a certification concerning compliance with the current ANSI standards for stations that have had no “material change” in its RF environment since the last CP grant or license renewal.

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • A BROADCAST ENGINEER’S GUIDE AM DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION USING MOMENT METHOD MODELING, JUNE 2010
    •  AM broadcast stations employing directional antenna systems are frequently faced with monitor point Readings which exceed the limits specified on the station license. Correcting the problem is often time consuming and expensive due to conditions beyond the stations’ control. In September, 20081, the FCC released a Public Notice which provides significant relief for AM stations by simplifying the process of verifying the proper operation of AM directional antenna systems. The process is based on the use of moment method computer modeling in conjunction with careful evaluation and certification of the internal monitoring system installed at the transmitter site. This approach frees stations from the requirement to maintain monitor point values.

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • COMPACT MEDIUM WAVE TRANSMITTING ANTENNAS, MARCH 2009
    •  Increasing land costs, ever more restrictive land use regulations and the public’s impression that towers are aesthetically distasteful, have led to a continuing interest in physically small transmitting antennas for use by broadcasters operating in the 535-1705 kHz medium wave band. In the fall of 2000, the level of interest, and apparent misunderstanding of basic antenna theory, led to an entire afternoon of the 50th Annual IEEE Broadcast Symposium being dedicated to the subject of physically small transmitting antennas. In this paper, the author provides computational and empirical data for two compact antenna systems which offer meaningful size reductions while providing reasonable radiation efficiency, bandwidth and stability when compared to a reference quarter-wave monopole with standard buried radial ground system consisting of 120, equally spaced, 1/4 wavelength radials.

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • LIMITED AREA BROADCASTING (A GUIDE TO FCC RULES, PART 15) FOR EDUCATIONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL INSTITUTIONS, OCTOBER 2006
    •  Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Regulations provides the standards for intentional radiators which may be operated without prior FCC approval or license. These systems are to be operated subject to the condition that they do not cause harmful interference to licensed broadcast facilities. Should the FCC notify the owner of a Part 15 system that they are causing harmful interference, the system must be shut down immediately and cannot return to the air until the interference has been corrected. This document will provide an overview of practical system designs which can be constructed and the considerations involved. All Part 15 systems are limited area systems. They are applicable when FCC Rules prohibit licensed, wide area, operation or when broadcasting to relatively limited areas is desired.

       

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  • DIGITAL RADIO TRANSMISSION (HD) RADIO, UPDATED OCTOBER 2006
    •  In October, 2002, the FCC approved “in band, on channel” (IBOC) as the digital audio transmission technology to be implemented in the United States. iBiquity Digital Corporation is, at present, the sole developer and licensor of HD RadioTM technology. Equipment manufacturers such as Harris, Broadcast Electronics and Nautel have developed licensed transmission equipment digital products, and, in 2005, receivers are currently available from a number of manufacturers such as Kenwood, JVC and Panasonic, among others.

       

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • NEW AUXILIARY FACILITIES FREQUENCY COORDINATION PROCEDURES, OCTOBER 2003
    • In November 2002, the Commission adopted new frequency coordination procedures for the filing and licensing of most fixed point to point aural and TV broadcast stations. The new Rules became effective on October 16, 2003 and immediately placed new burdens on AM, FM and TV stations owners. Under the new Rules, detailed interference analysis for aural STL facilities including the appropriate engineering studies to avoid interference to other users is required. Additionally, notification, wherein the proposed frequency usage determined from the interference analysis is forwarded to all existing licensees and applicants whose facilities could affect or be affected by the proposal is also a requirement. This notification is called a “Prior Coordination Notice” or “PCN”, which notification contains all of the technical operating parameters of the proposed system. The completion and filing of a FCC Form 601 application completes the process.

      Effective January 1, 2017 CTI no longer provides this service preferring to focus on the needs on AM, FM and TV broadcaster main and auxiliary facility design and implementation. CTI can recommend firms who have STL expertise to clients who need STL services if they do not already work with a contrcator. We feel that firms who have knowledge of broadcast facilities are best able to assist the typical broadcast station.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • NEW AM BROADCAST ANTENNA DESIGNS HAVING FIELD VALIDATED PERFORMANCE, SEPTEMBER 2000
    •  During the last five years, North American Broadcasters have implemented, on a limited basis, several variations on the traditional vertical radiator with 120 buried radials with significant success. These innovations are described in this paper and include elevated radial ground systems in place of traditional buried ground systems, use of a single internal cable to excite a self supporting grounded tower rather than a multi wire external skirt and the use of a guy wire or other sloping radiator to achieve a directional antenna pattern. We discuss the practical aspects of each system, information drawn from field experiences, and the FCC’s view of these antenna types.

      Click Here for the Full Paper

       

  • AN INNOVATIVE AM RADIATOR DESIGN EMPLOYING RADIATING GUY WIRES AND AM ANTENNA SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY UPDATE, SEPTEMBER 2000
    • One of the greatest limiting factors in locating an AM broadcast tower is the significant land required for the ground system. The authors describe a novel method of feeding a grounded tower, at least one quarter wave in height at the AM frequency, which overcomes this limitation since no land is required for the ground system. Computer-predicted values of radiated electric field strength for this design are competitive with those generated by conventional techniques. A scale model has been constructed and measured results are discussed as they compare to computed values. The paper concludes with a current status report on the use of elevated radial ground systems in the US. and FCC initiatives concerning new AM antenna designs.

       

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  • THE AM UMBRELLA ANTENNA, JULY 2000
    • One of the greatest limiting factors in locating an AM broadcast tower is the significant amount of acreage occupied by the buried radials. The authors describe a novel method of feeding a grounded tower which overcomes this difficulty, since essentially no land is required for the earth connection. Computer-predicted values of radiated electric-field intensity are competitive with those generated by conventional techniques. A scale model has been constructed, and measured results are discussed in comparison with computed values.

      Click Here for the Full Paper